Daniel 9:25-26:

25. Know therefore and understand

That from going forth of the command

To restore and build Jerusalem

Until Messiah the Prince

There shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks

The streets shall be built again and the wall

Even in troublesome times.

26. And after the sixty-two weeks

Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; .......

Christian theologians knew for centuries that this prophecy refers to Jesus.

The first Christian who made a real break-through this prophecy was Sir Robert Anderson, although his analysis had some mistakes.

As Sir Robert Anderson correctly noticed, there was only one "command to restore and build Jerusalem" and it was given to Nehemiah "in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes" (Nehemiah 2:1).

Sir Robert Anderson identified March 14, 445 BC (Nisan 1, 445 B) as starting point of Daniel's prophecy.

Because Xerxes I, the father of Artaxerxes I, was assassinated in 465 BC, Sir Robert Anderson took year 445 BC as the 20th year of reign of Artaxerxes I.

Since Anderson's time, archaeologists made several discoveries which lead to correction of this date (Nisan 1, 445 BC) as a starting point for Daniel's prophecy.

First, archaeology proved that Persians used Nisan-to-Nisan (March/April to March/April) dating system. That means that if a king dies, his successor's 1st year of reign is counted from the month of Nisan (Nisan 1) following the death of a king.

Xerxes I was crowned and succeeded his father, Darius I, in October-December 486 BC. Therefore, the 1st year of reign of Xerxes I started in the following Nisan - Nisan 1, 485 BC.

The 1st year of Xerxes I (the father of Artaxerxes) reign was Nisan (March/Aril) 485 BC to Nisan (March/April) 484 BC.

The following tablets which have been unearthed determine and prove the exact period in which Artaxerxes came to the throne:

"A cuneiform tablet found in the excavation campaign of 1930-31 in Ur [concerns itself with], an agreement dated in the thirteenth year of Artaxerxes I, but states that the original arrangement was signed in the month KlSLIMU IN THE TWENTY-FIRST YEAR OF XERXES!" (Horn, Chronology of Ezra 7, p. 101.)

As it was shown above, the 1st year of Xerxes I (the father of Artaxerxes) reign was Nisan (March/Aril) 485 BC to Nisan (March/April) 484 BC.

Therefore, the 21st year of Xerxes was Nisan (March/Aril) 465 BC to Nisan (March/April) 464 BC.

Artaxerxes I, was assassinated in 465 BC. In 465 BC, the month of Kislimu began on December 17. This document shows that Xerxes I was alive in late December 465 BC (since the tablet shows Xerxes was still alive in the month Kislimu). Hence, his successor, Artaxerxes I, could not have taken the throne until after this date.

Another document, AP 6, fixes the exact time of the ascension of Artaxerxes. This papyri bears the following dateline:

"On the 18th of Kisleu which is the (17th) day of Thoth, in year 21, the beginning of the reign (accession year) when King Artaxerxes sat on his throne" (Horn, The Chronology of Ezra 7, p. 101-103).

The eighteenth of Kisleu of year 21(of reign of Xerxes I) was January 2/3, 464 BC (see, Parker and Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology', P- 31).

Therefore, on January 2, 464 BC, we see that King Artaxerxes is ALREADY SITTING ON THE THRONE!.

But Xerxes' death, as we have seen, could not have occurred before December 17, 465 B.C.

Here is the only conclusion: Artaxerxes I came to the throne between December 17, 465 and January 2, 464 B.C.

But, the start of the 1st year of reign of Artaxerxes, according to Persian dating system was not the date when he actually sat on the throne, but later date - Nisan 1, 464 BC, which corresponds to March/April 464 BC.

The 1st year of reign of Artaxerxes was Nisan 464 BC - Nisan 463 BC.

Therefore the 20th year of Artaxerxes was Nisan 445 BC - Nisan 444 BC, according to Persian dating system.

The date of this decree is given in the biblical record.

Nehemiah 1:1 states that Nehemiah heard of Jerusalem’s desolate conditions in the month of Chislev (November/ December) in Artaxerxes' twentieth year.

Then later in Artaxerxes' twentieth year in the month of Nisan (March/April) Nehemiah reports that he was granted permission to restore the city and build its walls (2:1).

To have Nisan later than Chislev (in the same year) may seem strange until one realizes that Nehemiah was using a Tishri-to-Tishri (September/October) dating method rather than the Persian Nisan-to-Nisan method.

Jews had two calendars: one sacred (from Nisan-to-Nisan) and one civil (from Tishri-to-Tishri). Jews began their civil year in the fall (in Tishri which is September/October)

Nehemiah was following what was used by the kings of Judah earlier in their history. This method used by Nehemiah is confirmed by the Jews in Elephantine who also used this method during the same time period as Nehemiah.

"That the fifth century Jews actually counted the years of reign of the Persian kings according to their own fall-to-fall calendar is attested not only by Nehemiah, . . . later on (it is) traditionally by the Talmud....

According to the explanation of Rosh Hashanah . . . the first of Tishri (the seventh month) is the NEW YEAR FOR FOREIGN KINGS!" (Horn, The Chronology of Ezra 7, p. 73.)

So, Xerxes I died between December 17, 465 BC and January 2, 464 BC. According the Persian dating system, Artaxerxes' 1st year of reign was April/May 464 BC - April/May 463 BC.

But, according to Jewish dating system used by Nehemiah, Artaxerxes' 1st year of reign was September/October 464 BC - September/October 463 BC.

And according to Jewish dating system used by Nehemiah, Artaxerxes' 20th year of reign was September/October 445 BC - September/October 444 BC.

The report to Nehemiah (Nehamiah 1:1) occurred in Chislev (November/December) of 445 B.C. and the decree of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1) occurred in Nisan (March/April) of 444 BC.

A specific day in the month of Nisan when the decree was given is not mentioned by Nehamiah 2:1. When a specific day of the month is not mentioned in the Bible, it is always presumed to be the first day of the month.

Therefore, the decree of Artaxerxes (Nehemiah 2:1) to rebuild and restore Jerusalem (the walls and streets) was given on Nisan 1, 444 BC.

Nisan 1, 444 BC corresponds to Julian date April 2, 444 BC.

You can easily verify this date using the Hebrew to Gregorian Calendar Converter (a link below) using the following instructions:

1. Type or choose in the Hebrew portion (right side) of this calendar: Day:1, Month: Nisan, Year: 3317 (Hebrew year 3317 corresponds to our year 444 BC).

2. Click button: Hebrew to Gregorian.

Result:

On the Gregorian portion (left side) of this calendar you will get:

Day: 28, Month: March, Year: -444

[Gregorian calendar in this converter has Yr 0 instead of Yr 1AD - so, you always need to subtract 1 from this year: -443 -1 = - 444 (or 444 BC].

Scroll down and you will see the Julian date: 2 April -444 (or April 2, 444 BC)

The link to this calendar converter is:

http://www.bsswebsite.me.uk/Daysanddates/hebrewdate.htm

So, we have a starting date of Daniel's prophecy: April 2, 444 BC (Julian Date)

Daniel 9:26:

25. Know therefore and understand

That from going forth of the command

To restore and build Jerusalem

Until Messiah the Prince

There shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks

So, from April 2, 444 BC (command is given) to Messiah's appearance as the Prince, it will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks

1. Calculation of total number of weeks to Messiah the Prince:

7 wks + 62 wks = 69 wks

Bible Numbers: A day is equal a year:

The following are examples of a day representing a year in the Bible:

(a) "A day for each year" in the account of the ten spies returning with a bad report to Moses about the Promised Land after spying it out for 40 days:

"And your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and bear your whoredoms, until your carcasses be wasted in the wilderness. After the number of the days in which you searched the land, even forty days, each day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, even forty years..." (Numbers 14:33,34a)

(b) Ezekiel is told to lie on his side "a day for each year":

"Lie thou also upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it: according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it thou shalt bear their iniquity. For I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days, three hundred and ninety days: so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel. And when thou hast accomplished them, lie again on thy right side, and thou shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah forty days: I have appointed thee each day for a year" (Ezekiel 4:4-6).

(c) The Law of Moses commands that the 7th day be a day of rest, and that likewise the 7th year be a year of rest, (Ex. 20:8-11; 23:10-11).

This lays a pattern for the very important prophecy of Daniel's seventy weeks.

Each "week" referred here in Daniel 9 represents a symbolic seven-year period where one day signifies one year.

2. Calculation of Number of Years to Messiah the Prince appearance:

69"wks" x 7 yrs per "wk" = 483 years

Remember, this is 483 Biblical years.

Biblical year is 360 days (determined from: Revelation 12:6, 12:14)

Biblical month is 30 days (determined from: Genesis 7:11, 8:3, 8:4)

Our calendars operate in solar years. So we need to convert Biblical years to solar years. Each solar year contains 365.24219 days.

3. Converting 483 Biblical years to solar years:

483 Biblical years x 360 days per biblical year / 365.24219 days per solar year =

= 476.068 solar years

We should recognize that this prophecy was given in the whole numbers of weeks. It says "7 weeks and 62 weeks". It does not say "7and 1/2 weeks" and "62 and 1/3 weeks". This prophecy is given as an integer 69 weeks (7 weeks and 62 weeks). The result must be also a whole number, an integer, i.e. 476 years.

It is like God is telling us through Daniel:

"I give you the whole number of 'weeks' as input, and you will get the whole number of years as output !"

The data was given in whole numbers and the solution lies in advancing from the start-date exactly 476 solar years.

Note that a decimal number was used in this calculation (365.24219 days per solar year).

If the correct solution must be integer, one might ask why a decimal number was used in the intermediate computation.

The answer is simple: the number of days in a solar year is, for all practical purposes, a natural constant (rather than data).

The other numbers (those given in the prophecy or deduced from other prophetic material) are all integer data. It is only the result (i.e., the number of years) that must be an integer (476 years).

Thus in computing the solution we are allowed to distinguish between constants (which may be decimal numbers) and data (which is only given to a particular level of specificity - in this case integers). The result of a calculation cannot be more specific than the data. In this case the result cannot be more specific than a whole year.

From Nisan 1, 444 BC to the appearance of the Messiah as a Prince, it takes 476 whole years.

476 yrs - 444 yrs (in BC period) = 32 yrs (remainder for AD period)

It takes 444 yrs to the end BC period with a remainder of 32 years for the AD period.

Because we do not have Year 0 between BC and AD periods, and AD period starts with Year 1 AD (instead of Year 0), we need to add 1 year to this remainder to determine exact year when the Messiah appears as a Prince.

32 yrs + 1 yr = 33 AD

The Messiah appeared as a Prince in Nisan 33 AD !

We even can determine the exact date when the Messiah appears as a Prince !

We will use the same input data of 69 "weeks" (integer) which is equal to 476 solar years (integer).

(4) Computation of the number of days in 476 solar years:

476 yrs x 365.24219 days per solar year = 173,855.282 days = 173,855 days

April 2, 444 BC is our start date. By adding 173,855 days to this date we will get the exact day and date when the Messiah appeared as a Prince.

The easiest way to do it is to use a Julian Date Converter which assigns a number to each Julian Date and convert Julian Date number to Julian Date (a link is provided below):

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.php

Please, use the following instructions:

To assign Julian Date Number to Julian Date of April 2, 444 BC, use the Calendar Date to Julian Date part (the upper part) of the Julian Date Converter:

1. Type or choose Year: 444 BC, Month: April, Day: 2, Hour: 12 (JDNs are given as of 12 hr Universal Time)

2. Click the button: Compute Julian Date

This Converter will show that April 2, 444 BC has a Julian Date Number of 1,559,344.

From April 2, 444 BC, it takes 173,855 days for Messiah to appear as a Prince.

1,559,344 (JDN of April 2, 444 BC) + 173,855 = 1,733,199

So, Julian Date Number of the date when the Messiah appears as a Prince is 1,733,199.

Now, using the Julian Date to Calendar Date part (the bottom part) of the Julian Date Converter, we will find this exact date. Please use the following instructions:

1. Type: Julian Date: 1,733,199

2. Click the button: Compute Calendar Date

The Converter will show: CE 33 March 29.

On March 29, 33 AD (Julian Date), the Messiah appeared as a Prince !!

It is a Palm Sunday of 33 AD !!!

Friday, April 3, 33 AD (Julian Date) was a Passover.

Daniel's prophecy shows that the Messiah will appear as a Prince on March 29, 33 AD.

March 29, 33 AD was a Palm Sunday, the date of the Triumphal Entry. On this day, and only on this day, Jesus appeared to people in Jerusalem as a Prince.

And Daniel's prophecy points exactly to this day.

After the Triumphal Entry, Jesus wept over Jerusalem, saying:

Luke 19:43-44

"For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation.”

Jesus held Jewish authorities responsible for not recognizing that on that day the Messiah appears as a prince, fulfilling prophecies in Daniel 9:25 and Zechariah 9:9.

He expected them to pay attention to Daniel 9:25, which pointed at the exact day or the Messiah's appearance as a Prince.

This prophecy also confirmed that Jesus was crucified on Friday.

For additional arguments that Jesus was crucified on Friday, please read an article "The Day of Crucifixion. Three Days and Three Nights" which I posted in the Prophecy Discussion and Debate today, October 25, 2012.